Water wheels in the Region of Murcia
n the ninth century the Arabs built the Contraparada, a dam located seven kilometers from the city of Murcia in order to avoid
floods that produced the River Segura in its meanders and thus enable a new irrigation system that has evolved to
our days. Part of it a series of canals and ditches like the Alquibla (south) and Aljufía (north) forming branching
entire irrigation network. Difficulty had to be overcome to irrigate more land slopes that were top-level channel of water.
Begins to proliferate an elevator contraption water: the Ferris wheel, based on previous less effective and practical gadgets.
Noria facilitates better use of water resources in vegetable gardens and orchards.
Design has evolved throughout history and can find antecedents in previous Arab cultures, as Greek, Persian or
Roman. Arabs were familiar with Oriental irrigation systems. They reaprovecharon the former Roman irrigation infrastructure and
they expanded and developed their use, creating major, minor and armbands ditches, with an ingenious system of water distribution.
In 1374 the minutes of the council of Murcia is sealed with a seal in which is represented a wheel-wheel with the face of the complex and
fragile "ñoras" Arab next to the Segura river and the castle.
Origin of Ferris wheel: the Arabic "al naura" means "weeping" by the squeak producing the wheel to rotate on its axis and resembles a whimper.
There are several kinds of wells:
Current Norias: the river or stream drives all the machinery itself.
Norias shooting or water mills:moved with pack animals for movement and are more complicated than the first construction. It allows use the waters that are not at the level of the surface through a system of wells. It has two wheels, a vertical in contact with the flow, and horizontal crimped to the previous one and is pulled by a wooden pole by animals. Castilla and used in the fields of Lorca, Mazarron and Cartagena.
Norias rosary: Buckets are not attached to the circumference of the wheel but are subject to a greater perimeter cable as a rosary that allows collecting water deeper.
In the region of Murcia most wheel wells are current. While the waterwheels of origin Roman were much heavier and were made up of drawers inserted in the circumference of the crowns as Sewer, Arab waterwheels are lighter and have transoms and aqueducts, also called buckets of mud, copper or wood tied with ropes to the wheel independently each.
Energy is produced by the impact of water derived from a generally channel shaped funnel which makes the momentum is greater.
The water hits the blades of the wheel are interposed in the natural flow of the current.
The wheel rotates about a horizontal axis at the crossroads between the spokes. In this shaft steel ball bearings that fit encrust in masonry walls whose size varies according to the dimensions of the wheel.
The water is transported from the buckets to a channel or a raft located higher and allowing gravity irrigation through a network of water distribution.
Aquaculture in the Region of Murcia
Aquaculture is the set of activities, skills and knowledge raising aquatic plants and animals. It is an important economic activity in food production, raw materials for industrial and pharmaceutical, and living organisms for repopulation or adornment.
Beekeeping is an activity recently introduced in the region of Murcia.
The first experiences in this sector were carried out from the eighties, but it would be in the mid-nineties when aquaculture production would develop an exponential way.
species currently grown in the Murcian coast are bream, sea bass, bluefin tuna and sea bass, the latter recently introduced.
bream and sea bass : The production of seabream and seabass is carried out in "farms" floating cages,
although the fry are acquired specialized companies that perform captive breeding.
The feeding of these species in the nursery is mixed, although made up mainly of feed.
When individuals reach maturity and the right size are transferred to the packaging and shipping rooms.
Almost all production is sold fresh in the domestic market, either through the
large power distributors for retail, or through specialized channels in hotels and restaurants. The quality of the gold and
Murcia seabass is fully recognized by the market.
Bluefin Tuna : The main production of aquaculture Murcia, both in volume and economic value, is the bluefin tuna in the Mediterranean. Bluefin tuna is obtained from specimens that arrive each year in their genetic migration to the Mediterranean Sea, pescándose purse seine moving them in different places Murcian coast for fattening and Oil on "farms" or nurseries. It is floating cages facilities, anchored along the coast, at depths of 35-50 meters. They are easy to tuna a natural diet based on fresh fish, mostly menhaden and sardines for fattening until it acquires maturity and quality of fat and suitable color. At this time, it is captured using innovative techniques lightheadedness, slaughtered and transported to the cutting or freezing facilities. The whole aging process is under veterinary supervision to apply advanced techniques in each stage, continuous technological renovation. Murcian companies producing bluefin tuna are national leaders and Europeans in this market, constituting one of the main points of supply to Japan, on an international scale. The representative body of the regional business sector is the Association of Tuna in the Region of Murcia (ASETÚN).
Capture and Income
Aquaculture production in the region of Murcia in 2007 was 7,475 tons and 59.4 million euros of revenue,
372 workers engaged in this activity. The data reveal an upward progression of Murcia aquaculture,
although the species behavior has been uneven.
Until three years ago, the rise of bluefin tuna was gradually coming to contribute 91% of total revenues aquaculture.
However, in the last three years he accuses a slight decline since grown 2,547 tons account for 60% of total aquaculture amount, equivalent to 66% less than in 2002, the year reached the highest point. This decrease in bluefin tuna production is mainly due to that experienced by the cultivation of sea bream and bass boom, totaling between them about 5,000 tons and 24 million euros.
Producing Areas The main producing areas Esparto mid-nineteenth century and early twentieth century were Cieza, Abarán, Cehegín, Lorca, Bullas, Abanilla, Eagles, Albudeite, Campo de Cartagena, etc. ..
Esparto currently the industry in the Region of Murcia is practically residual, although still exist today some craftsmen dedicated to this traditional work. In Cieza Esparto it is still a whole hallmark since long was one of the livelihoods of ciezanos well as the industrial engine of the city.
In Bullas, Esparto craftsmen have the opportunity to exhibit their products each month in the craft market Zacatín. Esparto crafts with items such as carpets, is one of the most ancient craft traditions of municipalities like Blanca. Similarly during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Cehegín experienced a period of splendor and wealth thanks, among others, to the flourishing industry of Esparto.
Currently, there are three uses with which still has the Esparto.
On the one hand, it is used raw for the Hessians in crafts; on the other, mixed with plaster for use in construction.
And finally, in a kind of bundles and prepared for grafting in agriculture.
We must also highlight a very successful new market related esparto, and is its
marketing as scrubbers, especially in Germany. As the characteristics,
It emphasizes its ecological quality, as an alternative product to its chemical counterparts used for cleaning.
Esparto The term is often used to name the leaves; while overall plant is called Atocha or Espartera.
It was first used in a primitive industry ropes, rigging of ships, baskets, baskets, agricultural supplies and materials change.
The Phoenicians and the Punic marketed especially around the Mediterranean. It appears in texts of Strabo and Pliny, who spoke Esparto found by the Romans in the Second Punic War and marketed since 500 B.C.
by Carthaginians (hence the name derives Campus Spartarius for the region of Cartagena). br> Although some archaeological studies claim that Esparto was already used in the prehistory of the Murcia Region, the Romans were what drove this industry, located in the northern provinces of Almeria and Granada, Murcia, Albacete and East. p>
green Esparto bse freshly caught before it dries, braid when still fresh. With this type are
usually made Esparto: strands, braided cords with three wires for tying bundles of wheat or barley, etc.
Esparto cooked b>: once collected bunches are left to dry. To this end, they esparto tied and hands open to air out well; then put in the shade and when dry are introduced into a pond filled with water (kettles).
They stay there for three weeks, then dry well in the sun to prevent moisture caught. p>
Esparto activity was acquired great national importance, to the point that Carlos III banned their importation.
But after his death, he acquired a great value in the foreign market, especially in England, consuming country par excellence.
A mid-nineteenth century it was a flourishing industry and the raw material abundant in the mountains of some
districts of the region, so began an era of development.
The workers tore Esparto and then sold by weight bales, kilos or pounds (about 11.5 kilos). At first he worked as gathered from the field, and plaited to make baskets, capazas, seras, etc., which then served for the harvesting of fruits and vegetables or transport of other materials.
I then began to chop or crush it so that its texture was softer. Thus, a mechanical deck itched Esparto getting a much easier matter braiding, so they could be made more attractive and aesthetic works.
El proceso de cultivo de la planta
The plant maturation esparto takes place in spring, and its annual fruit and variable amount
according to the regime of winter rains and spring. During the first age and until the third year the plant is very sensitive to extreme cold and frost.
At first the growth is very slow, although I spent the third year of life accelerates, getting Esparto
useful to the fifth; into decline around fifty, and later degenerates.
To prevent regression of the mountains Esparto, it is necessary to carry out the collection in the period from June to December. Any delay can cause great damage to the mountain, where you should do cleaning scrub, with thinnings to favor its growth and eliminate competition from other species.
Esparto plant is in continuous vegetative activity called move,
and experience its peak in two particular periods:
spring and autumn, as a result of the rains of these times p>.
Although the preparation and stranding Esparto performed today mostly in large factories industrially, They susbsisten still small artisans who continue the tradition. Next to esparto there are other fibers such as hemp, jute or pita (the latter two lesser extent) with Murcia that artisans make baskets, espadrilles, espadrilles, soplillos of the fire and other objects. Cane and palm brooms, cages for small animals and a variety of baskets, made very sector important in the Murcian folk crafts. Among the products of basketry cane skirts they are well known: large baskets with side curved, used in the garden to protect the chicks of turkeys and chicken in their first days of life. They also produce baskets for clothing, paper, sewing baskets, eggs, etc.